There are many ways to learn about the Paxos protocol, this post is one more way. This post has embedded a set of simple exercises - try to go over them!

The model is Partial Synchrony with $f<n/2$ omission failures and the goal is consensus (see below for exact details).

We approach Paxos by starting with two major simplifications:

  1. Use a simple revolving primary strategy based on the assumptions of perfectly synchronized clocks (later posts will show how to extend to a stable leader, how to rotate leaders with responsiveness, and how not to rely on clock synchronization).
  2. Focus on a single-shot consensus (a later post will show how to extend to multi-shot consensus both as an array and as a linked list).

View-based protocol with simple revolving primary

The protocol progresses in views. The first view is 1 and view $v+1$ follows view $v$. Each view has a designated primary party. For fairness, parties rotate the role of the primary. For simplicity, the primary of view $v$ is party $v \mod n$.

Clocks are perfectly synchronized, and $\Delta$ is known. So view $v$ is set to be the time interval $[v(10 \Delta),(v+1)(10 \Delta))$. In other words, each $10\Delta$ clock ticks each party triggers a view change and increments the view by one. Since clocks are assumed to be perfectly synchronized, all parties move in and out of each view in complete synchrony.

Single-shot consensus

In this setting, each party has some input value and the goal is to output a single value with the following three properties:

Uniform Agreement: all parties that output a value, output the same value. Note that this is a strictly stronger property than Agreement which just requires that all non-faulty parties that output a value, output the same value.

Termination: all non-faulty parties eventually output a value and terminate. Note that this is a strictly stronger property than Liveness which just requires that all non-faulty parties eventually output a value.

Validity: the output is an input of one of the parties. Note that this is a strictly stronger property than Weak Validity which just requires that if all parties have the same input value then this is the output value.

Recoverable Broadcast protocol

Recoverable Broadcast is a pair of simple protocols: Broadcast and Recover. The Broadcast protocol has a designated leader party that has an input value val.

Recall that there are $n$ parties in total and at most $f<n/2$ can have omission corruptions.

Broadcast protocol:

leader sends <val> to all

Upon receiving <val> from leader, 
    send <echo, val> to all

Upon receiving n-f <echo, val>, 
    output val

Note that for simplicity, the leader also acts as a regular party. So it also sends <val> to itself and upon seeing its own message, it sends an <echo, val> message to all parties (again including sending it to itself).

Recover protocol. The output is either a value or a special $\bot$ value:

upon start,
    if you sent <echo, val> in Broadcast,
        then send <recover, val> to all
    if you did not send <echo, val> in Broadcast yet,
        then send <recover, bot> to all
Upon receiving n-f <recover, *>,
    if one is <recover, val> then output val
    otherwise (all are bot) then output bot

We will later detail what triggers starting the Recover protocol. Note that given <echo, val>, sending <recover, val> could be made redundant. We keep both for clarity for now.

4 properties of Recoverable Broadcast:

Validity: The output of Broadcast is the leader’s input value. The output of Recover is either the leader’s input value or $\bot$.

Weak Termination of Broadcast: If the leader is non-faulty then all non-faulty parties output a value and terminate.

Termination of Recover: If all parties start Recover, then all non-faulty parties output a value and terminate.

Recoverability: If all parties start Recover after some party outputs a value from Broadcast then all parties will output this value in the Recover.

Observe that:

  1. The Broadcast may not terminate.
  2. Recover may return a non-$\bot$ value, even if no party has output a value during broadcast!
  3. Recover may return $\bot$, even if some party outputs the value from broadcast!

Exercise 1: write down three detailed executions that highlight each one the observations above.

Exercise 2: Prove Validity and the two Termination properties. Explain where you used the assumption that there are at most $f$ failures.

Exercise 3: prove recoverability and explain where you use (1) the assumption that $f<n/2$; (2) the Pigeonhole principle; (3) and where exactly you use the fact that the Recover is started after some party outputs a value from Broadcast.

Paxos via Recoverable Broadcast

We use a variation of Recoverable Broadcast to build a view-based consensus protocol. Recall that every $10 \Delta$ the parties change view and rotate the primary. Since clocks are perfectly synchronized this change of view is perfectly synchronized as well.

Here is a natural path: in view 1 the primary does a Recoverable Broadcast, with its input value. The output of the Broadcast is a consensus decision!

But there is a challenge: what if the first Primary is faulty and only some parties decide (but not all)? For agreement to hold we must make sure that later primaries use the same value!

Exercise 4: If all each primary does in its view is Broadcast its input value - show an execution that has a violation of the Agreement property.

A natural thing a primary of view >1 can do is call Recover (duh - that’s why we started with Recoverable Broadcast). In particular, if there was a decision in view 1 by some party, then we would like the Recover to notify the new primary.

Recall that for recoverability we need the output of the Broadcast to happen before the Recover starts! Solution: change the Broadcast so it stops when view $v$ ends:

Broadcast-in-view(v,p) has both a view $v$ and a proposal value $p$:

Primary of view v sends <propose(v,p)> to all

Upon receiving <propose(v,p)> from primary,
    if myview = v then send <echo(v,p)> to all

Upon receiving n-f <echo(v,p)>,
    if myview = v then output p

Now we can do a Recovery when we enter view $v+1$ and guarantees the recoverability properties for all Broadcasts of previous views. Another challenge: what if Recover returns different values from several previous views, which one should the primary use? For example, suppose that at view 10, we recover both a proposal $p’$ from view 4 and a proposal $p’’$ from view 6, which one should the primary choose?

The main Paxos algorithmic insight is:

Choose the recovered value with the maximum view you hear!

Recover-Max protocol for view $v$ that applies this insight:

upon start of view v
    send <echoed-max(v,v',p)> of the highest view v' in which you sent <echo(v',p)>
    or send <echoed-max(v,bot)> if you never sent echo yet

Primary waits for n-f responses <echoed-max(v,*)>
    if all are bot then output bot
    otherwise output the proposal p associated with the highest view v'

This Recover protocol needs only to send messages to the primary.

We are still not done. But let’s analyze the effect of Recover-Max. Assume that in each view, each primary just Broadcasts its own input.

Lemma 1: let $p$ be a value output by Broadcast in some view $v$, then any Recover-Max invocation in any view $>v$ will output some value $p’$ such that $p’$ was proposed at view $\geq v$.

Exercise 5: prove Lemma 1. Show examples where the Lemma is incorrect if (1) some party sends an echoed-max not of its highest echo but of a lower view; or (2) the primary outputs not the proposal associated with the highest view but of a lower view.

Exercise 6: if each Primary just proposes its own input show an example of why in the lemma above it may happen that $p \neq p’$.

So all that remains is to combine the two protocols to make sure the primary uses the result of Recover-Max if its output is not $\bot$. We are finally ready to define the consensus protocol:

The consensus protocol:

For view 1, the primary of view 1 with input $val$:

Broadcast-in-view (1,val)

For view $v>1$, the primary of view $v$ with input $val$:

p := Recover-Max(v)

if p = bot then 
   Broadcast-in-view (v,val)
   Broadcast-in-view (v,p)

In words: the primary will first try to recover the maximal echo. If no echo is seen, the primary is free to choose its own input. Otherwise, it proposes the value associated with the highest view in which it heard there was an echo.

This completes the description of the protocol. Let’s prove that the three properties of consensus hold.

Agreement (Safety)

Lemma 2: Let $v^{\star}$ be the first view with $n-f$ echos of $ (v^\star, x)$, then for any view $v>v^\star$ the proposal value of Broadcast-in-view (v,x) must be $x$.

Exercise 7: prove the Agreement property follows from Lemma 2.

First step hints: Assume two parties decide on different values. Prove they could not have decided in the same view, so … apply Lemma 2.

We now prove Lemma 2, which is the essence of Paxos.

Proof of Lemma 2: consider the set $S$ (for Sentinels) consisting of the $n-f$ parties that sent <echo(v*,x)> in view $v^\star$. We will call them the Sentinels, because they guard safety.

We will prove by induction, that for any view $v\geq v^\star$:

  1. The output of Recover-Max(v) is $x$.
  2. For each party $P_i$ in $S$, the highest view $v’$ of <echoed-max(v,v',x)> it sends in Recover-Max(v) is such that: (1) $v’ \geq v^\star$; (2) and the value is $x$.

For the base case, $v=v^\star$ this follows from the definition of $S$. Now suppose the induction statement holds for all views $v^\star \leq v$ and consider view $v+1$:

Recover-Max(v+1) must get a response from $n-f$ parties, and that set must intersect with the set $S$ which is also of size $n-f$ by at least $n-2f>0$ one party. From $(2.)$ of the induction hypothesis on views $\leq v$ it follows that at least this one response will be of view $\geq v^\star $ and its value is $x$. From $(1.)$ it follows that any response from view $\geq v^\star$ will be of value $x$. Since Recover-Max(v+1) takes the value associated with the highest view, it must output $x$. This proves part $(1.)$ of the induction hypothesis for view $v+1$.

Since the primary of view $v+1$ must propose $x$, then each party in $S$ either stays with its previous highest echo (from $(1.)$ of the induction hypothesis for view $\leq v$) or it updates it to the higher $(v+1,x)$. Clearly, in both cases, we proved that part $(2.)$ of the induction hypothesis holds for view $v+1$.

This concludes the proof of Lemma 2.


We proved Agreement, now let’s prove that eventually all non-faulty parties output a value.

Consider the view $v^+$ with the first non-faulty Primary that started after GST at time $T$. Since we are after GST, then on or before time $T+ \Delta$ the primary will receive <echoed-max(v+,*)> from all non-faulty parties (at least $n-f$). Hence will send a <propose(v+,p)> that will arrive at all non-faulty parties on or before time $T+2\Delta$. Hence all non-faulty parties will send <echo(v+,p)> (because they are still in view $v^+$). So all non-faulty parties will hear $n-f$ <echo(v+,p)> on or before time $T+3\Delta$. So all non-faulty will decide $p$ because they are still in view $v^+$.

This concludes the proof of Liveness.

Exercise 8: Show that there is no liveness (via an infinite execution) if view $v$ is set to be the time interval $[v(2 \Delta),(v+1)(2 \Delta))$. In other words, each $2\Delta$ clock ticks each party triggers an increment of the view by one.

Exercise 9: What is the minimal $\alpha$ such that the liveness property holds if view $v$ is set to be the time interval $[v(\alpha \Delta),(v+1)(\alpha \Delta))$. In other words, each $\alpha \Delta$ clock ticks each party triggers increments the view by one. What is the best time complexity you can get (see below)?


We proved that all non-faulty parties output a value, but our protocol never terminates! For that we add the following termination gadget:

If the consensus protocol outputs p,
    then send <decide, p> to all

Upon receiving <decide, p>
    If you did not output yet,
    Then output p and send <decide, p> to all

Upon receiving n-f <decide, p>

Exercise 10: prove termination - that the termination gadget causes all non-faulty parties to eventually terminate.


Observe that Validity is trivial in these protocols. By induction, the only values used are the inputs of the parties.

What if a party has several different values (for example it received several different values from several different clients)? This is an example of how the standard validity of consensus does not address the challenges of MEV. More on that in later posts.

Time and Message Complexity

Note that the time and number of messages before GST can be both unbounded. So for this post, we will measure the time and message complexity after GST.

Time complexity: since the Liveness proof waits for the first non-faulty primary after GST this may take an interrupted view, then $f$ views of faulty primaries, then a good view in the worst case. So all parties will output a value in at most $(f+2)10 \Delta$ time after GST. A more careful analysis can improve the first and the last durations. We will show later that $(f+1) \Delta$ is a worst case that cannot be avoided (but can have a small probability).

Message Complexity: since each round has an all-to-all message exchange, the total number of messages sent after GST is $O((f+1) \times n^2) = O(n^3)$. We will later show that $O(n^2)$ is the best you can hope for (against strongly adaptive adversaries).

Exercise 11: Modify the protocol above to use just $O(n)$ messages per view (so total of $O(n^2)$ after GST). Explain why the proof still works, in particular, detail the Liveness proof and the Time complexity. Can you get the same bound as in Exercise 9?