Decentralized Thoughts is a group blog on decentralization, by decentralized thinkers, for decentralized thoughts, of decentralized matters. Decentralized Thoughts is a group blog on decentralization, by decentralized thinkers, for decentralized thoughts, of decentralized matters.

Responsiveness under omission failures

In this post, we discuss log replication responsiveness in the context of omission failures. We show how to transform the protocol in our previous post to a multi-shot version of Paxos for omission faults. The Byzantine failure case uses similar ideas and is covered in the next post of this series. [Read More]

Set Replication - fault tolerance without total ordering

While state machine replication is the gold standard for implementing any (public) ideal functionality, its power comes at the cost of needing to totally order all transactions and as a consequence solve (Byzantine) agreement. In some cases this overhead is unnecessary. [Read More]
Tags: dist101

What is Responsiveness?

In asynchronous protocols, latency to commit is a function of the actual maximum network delay $\delta$. In synchronous protocols, message delay is bounded by $\Delta$, and for $n/3 \leq f < n/2$, the $\Delta$ bound is used to obtain both safety and liveness. In partial synchrony, message delay is bounded by $\Delta$ after GST, and the $\Delta$ bound is used to obtain liveness. [Read More]
Tags: dist101

What about Validity?

Perhaps the architipical trilemma is consensus - it requires three properties: agreement, liveness, and validity. Getting any two is easy, but all three together is what makes consensus such a facinating problem that continues to create new challenges even after 40 years of research. [Read More]

Two Round HotStuff

In the first part of this post we describe a single-shot variation of Two Round HotStuff (see HotStuff v1 paper, march 2018 and this march 2018 post) using Locked Broadcast that follows a similar path as our previous posts on Paxos and Linear PBFT. [Read More]
Tags: dist101

Linear PBFT: a gentle introduction to Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance

PBFT is a foundational multi-year project lead by Barbara Liskov and her students, obtaining major advances in both the theory and practice of Byzantine Fault Tolerance. The PBFT conference version, journal version, Castro’s thesis, Liskov’s talk, and follow up work on BASE are all required reading for anyone who wants to deeply understand BFT systems. [Read More]
Tags: dist101

From Single-Shot Agreement to State Machine Replication

In this post we explore the path from Single-Shot Agreement, via Write-Once Registers, to Log Replication, and finally to State Machine Replication. We begin by defining all four problems assuming minority omission failures and partial synchrony. This post continues our previous posts on Paxos from Recoverable Broadcast and on State Machine Replication. [Read More]

On Paxos from Recoverable Broadcast

There are many ways to learn about the Paxos protocol (see Lampson, Cachin, Howard, Howard 2, Guerraoui, Kladov, Krzyzanowski, Lamport, Wikipedia and many more). The emphasis of this post is on a decomposition of Paxos for omission failures that will later help when we do a similar decomposition for Byzantine failures (for PBFT and HotStuff). [Read More]

Provable Broadcast

We explore a family of broadcast protocols in the authenticated setting in which a designated sender wants to create a delivery-certificate of its input value. After describing the base protocol we call Provable Broadcast ($PB$), we explore the surprising power of simply running $PB$ two times in a row, then three times, and finally four times in a row. [Read More]
Tags: dist101

Dining Cryptographers and the additivity of polynomial secret sharing

David Chaum’s dining cryptographer problem is a pioneering work on the foundations of privacy. It shows the amazing power of information-theoretic Secure Multi Party Computation. The original paper from 1988 is super accessible and fun to read. Many systems in the last 20 years for anonymity and privacy-preserving communication are based on the Dining Cryptographers problem. Herbivore, Dissent, Riposte, Blinder, and many others. [Read More]

The BGW Verifiable Secret Sharing Protocol

In this post, we present the classic Ben-or, Goldwasser, and Wigderson, 1988 (BGW) Verifiable Secret Sharing protocol (VSS) with the simplifications of Feldman, 1988. The analysis and notation in this post are based on the full proof of the BGW MPC protocol of Asharov and Lindell. This post is a continuation of our previous posts on secret sharing for passive and crash failures. [Read More]

Polynomial Secret Sharing with crash failures

We continue our series on polynomial secret sharing. In the previous post of this series we discussed secret sharing with a passive adversary. In this post we assume crash failures and in later posts we will extend to malicious failures. As before, we must assume parties have private channels: the adversary cannot see the content of messages sent between two non-faulty parties. [Read More]

A new Dolev-Reischuk style Lower Bound

In a previous post we discussed Crusader Broadcast and showed a $O(n^2)$ words, $O(1)$ time solution for $f<n$ and assuming a PKI. In this post, we overview a new Dolev-Reischuk style bower bound (see our full paper): [Read More]

He-HTLC - Revisiting Incentives in HTLC

Hashed Time-locked Contracts (HTLC) find many useful applications in the L2 Layer such as the lightning network and atomic swaps. In this post, we will focus on discussing protocols for implementing HTLC when taking into consideration incentives for parties in the system. We will discuss a line of work — WHF’19, MAD-HTLC, He-HTLC — towards developing an HTLC protocol secure in the presence of rational parties. [Read More]

DAG Meets BFT - The Next Generation of BFT Consensus

This post explains in simple words a recent development in the theory and practice of directed acyclic graph-based (DAG-based) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) consensus, published in three prestigious peer-reviewed conferences, and currently being implemented by several Blockchain companies, e.g., Aptos, Celo, Mysten Labs, and Somelier. [Read More]
Tags: consensus

Safe Permissionless Consensus

Nakamoto’s consensus protocol works in a permissionless model, where nodes can join and leave without notice. However, it guarantees agreement only probabilistically. Is this weaker guarantee a necessary concession to the severe demands of supporting a permissionless model? [Read More]

Crusader Broadcast

In previous posts we showed that the classic Dolev-Strong broadcast protocol takes $O(n^3)$ words and $t+1$ rounds and that Dolev Reischuk show that $\Omega(n^2)$ is needed and it is also known that $t+1$ rounds are needed. So while the number of rounds is optimal, to this day it remains an open question of obtaining $O(n^2)$ broadcast against a strongly adaptive adversary (see post for recent progress). [Read More]
Tags: dist101